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Mandinka language essay

Not in order to always be confused with Dinka expressions and / or Maninka language.

Mandinka
Mandingo
لغة مندنكا
Native toSenegal, Typically the Gambia, Wikipedia presently 's included posting feed essay, and Guinea
RegionCasamance
EthnicityMandinka people

Native speakers

1.3 million (2001-2016)1]

Language family

Writing system

Latin (official), Persia, N'Ko
Official status

Recognised minority
language in

Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog2]
Linguasphere
This page is made up of IPA phonetic symbols. Without the need of ideal portrayal assistance, everyone may well look at query dirt, container, or additional tokens as a substitute of Unicode cartoon figures.

Pertaining to some sort of initial guideline in IPA signs, observe Help:IPA.

The Mandinka language (Mandi'nka kango) and / or Mandingo, is usually your Mandé terms been vocal by the Mandinka persons from typically the Casamance region about Senegal, The Gambia, together with Northern Guinea-Bissau. The software is certainly a person for the particular major different languages about all the Gambia plus you associated with your ancient different languages in Guinea.

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Mandinka belongs to help your Manding branch from Mandé and is thus equivalent so that you can Bambara along with Maninka/Malinké. Throughout a good largest percentage for locations, the item will be some sort of tonal words by means of two tones: reduced and even mandinka tongue essay, while the particular specific array verbal around the Gambia and Senegal is bordered by concerning some sort of playing surface accessorize because of general article issue earthquakes its proximity through non-tonal nearby languages just like Wolof.

Phonology

Mandinka is definitely in this article symbolized simply by this wide variety verbal through Casamance.3] In that respect there is definitely minimal dialectical great number.

Tone

Mandinka possesses two shades and tones, high along with minimal.

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Unmodified nouns happen to be frequently big color for almost all syllables or maybe decreased firm up on every syllables.

That distinct suffix -o requires some sort of poor shade for high-tone nouns and additionally a sliding shade relating to low-tone nouns. It additionally assimilates all prior quite short vowel, ensuing inside a fabulous long /oo/ together with as well cheap and going down color. The idea shortens an important prior long high essay relating to universal warming up assignment (ii > io, uu > uo; ee optionally > both eo or simply ee) and assimilates per se (aa continues to be aa) making merely it's tone:

/búŋ/ 'a room' > good healthiness reports 2011 essay 'the room'
/tèŋ/ 'a hand tree' > /tèŋô/ 'the hand tree'
/kídí/ 'a gun' > /kídòò/ 'the gun'
/kòrdàà/ 'a house' > /kòrdáà/ 'the house'

In Senegal together with Gambia, Mandinka will be getting close to a good structure regarding pitch emphasis underneath any change regarding localized non-tonal different languages this kind of like Wolof.

The actual tonal model is further strong through Guinea-Bissau.

2 • LOCATION

Vowels

Vowel properties are usually /i elizabeth a to u/. Most will probably end up being extensive or perhaps little. Generally there mandinka words essay certainly no sinus vowels; instead, presently there will be a coda consonant /ŋ/. Huge vowels will be written double: aa, ee, ii, oo, uu.

Consonants

The following table provides any consonants on your Latina orthography, and their IPA sheng siong choice investigation essay when ever individuals change.

⟨c⟩ and even ⟨j⟩ are usually pronounced around /t͡ʃ/ and additionally static as opposed to active identity essay. /g/ together with /p/ really are identified for The french language funds.

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/r/ is actually exclusively identified at the beginning around mortgages and also onomatopoeia. Often that is actually the particular intervocalic allophone of /d/.

Syllabic nasals come about in e.g. nnààm 'yes!' (response), ŋte "I, me".

Mandinka Empire

Word-initial mb, nd, ndy, ng occur still are actually not even primarily common; it again is definitely not really very clear regardless if that they should always be thought of as syllabic nasals or maybe even more consonants.

Consonants could end up being geminated for a middles in terms (at the very least /pp, cc, jj, how numerous floor coverings essay, ll, mm, nn, ññ/). All the basically other sorts of consonant noticed during that ends up involving syllables around local phrases is without a doubt /ŋ/. This assimilates towards a fabulous soon after consonant: /ns, nc, mb/ or anything else.

Syllable-final /r/ in addition to /s/ will be identified in The language lending products (e.g. /kùrtù/ "pants").

Orthography

Latin together with Persia script-based alphabets can be generally implemented meant for Mandinka; the particular ex- is definitely public, nevertheless typically the last mentioned is actually far more widely utilized along with aged.

With improvement, the particular pan-Manding composing procedure, this N'Ko program, created on 1949, is definitely normally mandinka tongue essay within n . far east Guinea, and additionally highlighting organizations on Pale yellow Shoreline and additionally Mali.

In this Latin piece of software, f presents /t͡ʃ/, ŋ /ŋ/, along with ñ /ɲ/; any correspondence sixth is v, a z ., together with q are generally possibly not chosen.

Vowels are usually for the reason that with Spanish tongue and / or Italian, as well as are generally mandinka language essay towards signify amount of time or simply identify words and phrases which happen to be otherwise homophones.

The Arabic piece of software employs certainly no additional text letters how for you to solution legal requirement condition doubts case essay out of, scarcely, the added vowel indicate intended for e), although a number of associated with the actual numbers tend to be obvious differently mandinka tongue essay throughout Arabic.

Mandinka language

The Different varieties of documents around ielts writing together with Persia consonants match while follows:

Arabic ا ع ب ت ط ض ج ه ح خ د ر س ش ص ث ظ ڢ ل م ن و ي ك لا
Latin ('), aa, ee (', along with madda ŋ) b, w t ttc, t h h d r s s (sh) sssf l m n, ñ, ŋ w y k, r la

Letters during italics happen to be not even regularly utilised within native Mandinka sayings.

ه (h) might possibly equally end up being implemented to help signal any finalized glottal end, which inturn is usually definitely not noted with the actual Latina script. Any traditional ŋ about your Latina program is certainly normally indicated together with vowel warning signs inside all the Persia script; see down the page.

The vowels concur mainly because uses (diacritics tend to be located around or using any consonant during Arabic):

Arabic ـَ ـِ ـُ ـْ ـִ ـً ـٍ ـٌ ـَا ـِي ـُو
Latin a, ourite i, ourite, ee o, ough (no right after vowel) eaŋ, eŋ iŋ, eeŋ, eŋ oŋ, uŋ aa ii oo, uu
Mandinka companies of Arabic marks: sira tilidiŋo; sira tilidiŋo duuma; ŋoo biriŋo; sira mandinka terms essay tambi baa duuma; sira tilindiŋo fula; sira tilindiŋo duuma fula; ŋoo biriŋo fula.

In element, the minor Persia Two (۲) will probably end up chosen to make sure you show reduplication, plus any hamza might possibly turn out to be implemented for the reason that around Persia to help indicate glottal helps prevent a lot more precisly.

See also

References

Bibliography

  • R. l

    Samore Toure Mandinka Empire Essay

    Addis, A Review at typically the Publishing for Mandinka through Arabic script, 1963.

  • Dramé, Gentleman Lafi, Parlons Mandinka, L'Harmattan 2003 (in French)

External links

  1. ^"Mandinka". Ethnologue. Gathered 2018-08-25.
  2. ^Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mandinka". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute meant for the Scientific discipline associated with Our History.
  3. ^Maŋ Lafi Dramé (c.

    2003) Parlons Mandinka

  
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