Nitration of Toluene

 Nitration of Toluene Article

Electrophilic Fragrant Substitution: The Nitration of Toluene Subjective

This industrially important result of EAS: The Nitration of Toluene exhibits how the harm of a nitronium ion would give out major and minor products by different positions of toluene. This is a great electrophilic alternative mechanism. Mixture of concentrated sulphuric and nitric acid can produce a nitronium ion, that will attack ortho-, meta- and para- positions at Toluene. (Mechanism by appendix). Introduction/Procedure

Toluene is definitely cooled down to almost 0'C because the overall reaction is quite exothermic. Great heat can cause the experiment to explode and also possible formation of di and tri nitrotoluene compounds. Following nitration, this kind of experiment goes thru series of purification/cleaning procedures. This makes sense since we would not need inorganic ions floating around in our final item. After the reaction is finish, steam bath is necessary to separate the two layers of mixture. Lower layer can be extracted as it's aqueous layer filled with H2SO4, HNO3 and WATER.

Add Et2O, aq Na2CO3 and drinking water to multiply the product so that it can be removed again. Bottom level aqueous level loaded with Na+, HCO3-, Cl- is extracted using Pasteur pipet.

Dried the product with CaSO4 carefully. This step is important because if perhaps there's any water residue left, it can show when drying ether at rotary evaporator stage. Also, drinking water is incompatible to GC.

After vacuum purification, we can add ether and use rotarary evaporator to dry out the ether and then if the product is clean, it is ready of GC and further methods.

qDiscussion of Results

Under usual conditions (low temperature/low acid solution concentration), this kind of reaction would give out three products of ortho-, meta- and para- nitrotoluene. However in this experiment, traces of 2, 4 – dinitrotoluene and 2, six – dinitrotolune are noticed which in turn could be concluded that research could be done at decrease temperature and at lower level of acidity....